Popular actress of the ’40s and often dubbed the most beautiful woman of her time, Hedy Lamarr had a lot going for her. At the age of 19, she starred in the Czech movie Ecstasy (1933), the first known (non-pornographic) film to show sex, nudity and to have a woman to orgasm. Tame to these days standards, the film caused uproar in the US, and the state of Pennsylvania even banned it once it was finally released. The film got her recognised by Hollywood, but her acting alone didn’t give her the legacy she deserves. On the side of her acting career, she also helped develop a radio communications system wanting to aid the allied forces against the Germans in 1941. Little did she know it would be the foundation for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
I wrote a piece over at The Biochemist blog about encouraging young girls into STEM, check it out:
By Nabila Juhi, Urmston Grammar School
I was going to find a cure for cancer, seven-year-old me decided. From a young age I’ve always been interested in science. It was perhaps one subject where I felt I’d found my niche: it was logical, I was good at it and it provided me with answers to questions I’d yet to even consider. Coming from an immigrant family, with parents who didn’t continue onto higher education, I was encouraged to stick to it – without any mention of the inequalities of women working in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Perhaps unsurprisingly, statistics about women in the UK STEM workforce aren’t all that interesting for a child still learning her timetables.
ca. 1898 — Marie Curie — Image by © Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS
Like many young women it didn’t take me long to notice the differences. Of course, the curriculum had its obligatory…
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Depression has often been simplified to a chemical imbalance in the brain, where the brains of those who are clinically depressed have lower levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. It’s what many medical treatments are based on, with the most common on the NHS being selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s), which works by blocking the uptake of serotonin by the brain, meaning more serotonin is readily available. However, the idea that depression is caused by too much or too little of a chemical in the brain simplifies the issue at hand and prevents us from tackling the complexity of depression as an illness.
Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalytic theory. In the early 1900’s, this was a new field of social science that is based on the unconscious mind. Psychoanalytic therapy aims to make unconscious thoughts conscious, so repressed feelings are released and the patient gains some insight of their own mind. Freud’s theories are notorious for being based the male mind, and how women constantly wished they were men – inevitably receiving a lot of criticism from feminist spheres, in particular a Karen Horney.
Biological sex in humans has often been simplified to whether or not someone has XX chromosomes, for females, or XY chromosomes, for males. We create this binary in attempt to classify, and better understand ourselves and our identities – however this can often lead to hostile language and the “othering” of the many people who don’t fit this binary. But just like gender identity, biological sex isn’t all that simple.
In school we are taught that in order for life to exist, respiration must occur: that is, the taking of sugars like glucose and combining it with oxygen to give you carbon dioxide, water, and a small amount of energy. This energy is used to fuel metabolic processes in all life forms – boiling down to the ability to survive and reproduce. But there are exceptions, such as the many types of “electric bacteria” that use energy in the form of electricity.
There is an abundance of evidence, provided to us by NASA’s many missions, that there is water on Mars. Most of this is ice water, but there are tiny amounts in the Martian atmosphere and recently there has even been evidence that liquid water is found on the surface. But how did we come to know this, and what is the significance?
Cancer can arise from infection of a virus or when there is a change in the DNA code in a region that controls the cell cycle. In the cell cycle, there are proteins (coded for by the DNA) which regulate how often the cell undergoes a division, and also sets up checkpoints to fix cell damage if detected. One of these proteins related to the cell cycle is p53, discovered by Professor Sir David Lane and Lionel Crawford in 1979. The gene that encodes p53 was later discovered in 1989 and is now considered the “guardian of the genome”, as a tumour suppressor.
The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa was the biggest outbreak of the disease we’ve yet to encounter. It killed more people than the previous 25 outbreaks combined and arose in a region of Africa that had never seen Ebola before. The big questions scientists are still asking is why West Africa, why now, and why did it affect so many people?