Depression has often been simplified to a chemical imbalance in the brain, where the brains of those who are clinically depressed have lower levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. It’s what many medical treatments are based on, with the most common on the NHS being selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s), which works by blocking the uptake of serotonin by the brain, meaning more serotonin is readily available. However, the idea that depression is caused by too much or too little of a chemical in the brain simplifies the issue at hand and prevents us from tackling the complexity of depression as an illness.
Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalytic theory. In the early 1900’s, this was a new field of social science that is based on the unconscious mind. Psychoanalytic therapy aims to make unconscious thoughts conscious, so repressed feelings are released and the patient gains some insight of their own mind. Freud’s theories are notorious for being based the male mind, and how women constantly wished they were men – inevitably receiving a lot of criticism from feminist spheres, in particular a Karen Horney.
Biological sex in humans has often been simplified to whether or not someone has XX chromosomes, for females, or XY chromosomes, for males. We create this binary in attempt to classify, and better understand ourselves and our identities – however this can often lead to hostile language and the “othering” of the many people who don’t fit this binary. But just like gender identity, biological sex isn’t all that simple.
In school we are taught that in order for life to exist, respiration must occur: that is, the taking of sugars like glucose and combining it with oxygen to give you carbon dioxide, water, and a small amount of energy. This energy is used to fuel metabolic processes in all life forms – boiling down to the ability to survive and reproduce. But there are exceptions, such as the many types of “electric bacteria” that use energy in the form of electricity.
There is an abundance of evidence, provided to us by NASA’s many missions, that there is water on Mars. Most of this is ice water, but there are tiny amounts in the Martian atmosphere and recently there has even been evidence that liquid water is found on the surface. But how did we come to know this, and what is the significance?
Cancer can arise from infection of a virus or when there is a change in the DNA code in a region that controls the cell cycle. In the cell cycle, there are proteins (coded for by the DNA) which regulate how often the cell undergoes a division, and also sets up checkpoints to fix cell damage if detected. One of these proteins related to the cell cycle is p53, discovered by Professor Sir David Lane and Lionel Crawford in 1979. The gene that encodes p53 was later discovered in 1989 and is now considered the “guardian of the genome”, as a tumour suppressor.
The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa was the biggest outbreak of the disease we’ve yet to encounter. It killed more people than the previous 25 outbreaks combined and arose in a region of Africa that had never seen Ebola before. The big questions scientists are still asking is why West Africa, why now, and why did it affect so many people?