Biological sex in humans has often been simplified to whether or not someone has XX chromosomes, for females, or XY chromosomes, for males. We create this binary in attempt to classify, and better understand ourselves and our identities – however this can often lead to hostile language and the “othering” of the many people who don’t fit this binary. But just like gender identity, biological sex isn’t all that simple.
Cancer can arise from infection of a virus or when there is a change in the DNA code in a region that controls the cell cycle. In the cell cycle, there are proteins (coded for by the DNA) which regulate how often the cell undergoes a division, and also sets up checkpoints to fix cell damage if detected. One of these proteins related to the cell cycle is p53, discovered by Professor Sir David Lane and Lionel Crawford in 1979. The gene that encodes p53 was later discovered in 1989 and is now considered the “guardian of the genome”, as a tumour suppressor.